Capitalism Simplified

John Brown was a tailor. He had been apprenticed at the age of thirteen years and had worked hard at his craft all of his life until, by the time he was forty, he owned his own shop and was making a modest living for his family and for the three journeyman tailors who worked for him. Then Elias Howe invented the sewing machine.

John Brown was not a Luddite. Rather than resist innovation, he borrowed a hundred pounds from a money lender and used it to purchase three of the new machines. He then hired three girls from the village to operate the machines and, in six months, John Brown was turning out five times as much clothing as he had before, enabling him to easily pay off the hundred pound loan with interest. Furthermore, since every seam was lock stitched, the product was far superior to anything that he and his three journeyman tailors had ever been able to produce by hand.
And what of those three journeyman tailors? Harry Black, William Green, and George White, following John Brown's lead, each borrowed a hundred pounds and bought three sewing machines of their own, each hiring three village girls as operators. The competition forced John Brown to lower his prices, in turn forcing Black, Green, and White to lower theirs. Thus twelve village girls had more money with which to buy better clothes at a lower cost.

Harry Black was not a meticulous man, and he failed to train his operators properly, resulting in many mistakes. His product, therefore was inferior to that of Brown, Green, and White, and his scrap cost was higher. As his sales and his revenue dropped, he tried to compensate by purchasing cheaper, inferior cloth from the weaver, thus further reducing the quality of his product. Competition from Brown, Green, and White prevented him from raising his prices to cover his losses, and at the end of the first year, Harry Black went out of business. His three operators found ready employment with Brown, Green, and White, who added a sewing machine apiece to compensate for the loss of Harry Black's contribution to the market.

The pressures of competition induced William Green to look for ways to increase the productivity of his four operators. He noticed that they spent almost half their time cutting patterns, a task that could be handled by someone less skilled than a sewing machine operator. Green therefore hired eight pattern makers to feed precut patterns to his sewing machine operators, thus doubling his output and easily paying for the increased payroll. When faced with Green's competitive edge, Brown and White were forced to follow suit, thereby adding twenty-four more villagers who had the means to buy the increased output of clothing.

George White was a man with an inventive turn of mind, and he found an even more profitable way of meeting his competition. Elias Howe's sewing machine was powered by a hand crank, allowing the operator only one hand to guide the cloth into the needle. George White hired the local blacksmith to fashion a long crank arm attached to a foot treadle, enabling the operator to power the machine with her foot and use both hands to position the work piece as she sewed. The result was a phenomenal increase in operator output. George White patented his idea and he and the blacksmith borrowed money and founded the White Sewing Machine Company, which manufactured foot powered sewing machines and sold them to Brown and Green and to tailoring shops all over the world. thereby reducing the cost of clothing for everyone

Capitalism is an awesome machine. The process of borrowing money and using it in the pursuit of personal profit inevitably results in increased wealth for the public at large. Moreover, Capitalism creates competition, which improves quality by automatically culling inferior producers from the marketplace. Furthermore, Capitalistic competition automatically generates innovation and invention, which not only increases the wealth available to the public but lowers the cost.

Three hundred years ago, wealth consisted of land and gold. The Industrial Revolution spawned a flurry of intellectual and economic activity that relegated that world to the trash heap of history. In the twenty-first century, wealth is defined as the product of Capitalism.

Leadership Coaching: 5 Undesirable Traits Of Leadership

Over the ages, leadership has been studied, defined and redefined. At some point, leadership was connoted with autocracy, with obedience and loyalty as salient characteristics. Then came a time when leadership was characterized as a collaborative and participative effort. Ultimate power did not depend on one person alone. Concepts of leadership as evolved through the years, and today, it is construed that an effective leader needs to possess several traits. There are also several unlikeable traits of effective leadership that leaders must avoid. What are undesirable traits to avoid in leadership?

5 Traits To Avoid In Leadership

  • Stubborness. It's shutting doors and not acknowledging how other people see things. This negative leadership trait is a definite culture killer wherein possibly valuable discussions and participation are curtailed. Such a closed attitude in leadership is one- dimensional, passé and isn't likely to bring any progress.

  • No Personal Accountability. There is no room for the blame game in effective leadership. If something goes wrong, a good leader puts himself/ herself on the dock.

  • Overconfidence. Confidence is essential in leadership, but a leader has to be wary about being overconfident. Leadership is keen wherein it knows its own potential as well as the potential of the team. It's not all talk, but no action in leadership. Being in the limelight of leadership does not permit somebody to engage in a self promoting brag- fest session. Leadership that takes action sets goals, makes plans and acts accordingly. It is quite unpleasant to listen to a leader that is too ambitious.

  • Stagnating. New technologies come out in the market almost everyday, and a leader has to know how to keep up. Technology can be used to maximize the potential of a leadership. Using old- fashioned methods will stagnate a leadership until it is left behind. Leadership has to be dynamic and it moves with the times. Adaptation will make a leadership thrive and progress.

  • Lack of Focus. Being focused will make a leadership achieve its goals. The team will be scattered if the leadership is incoherent and disorganized. There has to be full concentration when doing the task at hand. Effective leadership also knows how to motivate and inspire the team.

A leader has to possess the right traits and avoid manifesting these undesirable traits of leadership. The character of a leadership determines how efficient, effective and successful it will be. There's openness to the ideas and contributions of team members and there is personal accountability for errors and mistakes. Confidence in leadership makes it strong wherein it moves forward with focus and adapting to the trends of the business.

How Lab Automation Has Evolved

Robotic automation technology is a common feature of biomedical testing. The adoption of this mechanization by academic institutions definitely increased in modernistic years and this fashion is set to resume. Twenty years back, the authority of automated devices in the lab environment was starting to be perceived as a useful idea. Our first episode with laboratory robotic machines was via the use of liquid-handling devices that manifests crystalline compounds. My role was to design software for the system and commit numerous hands-on actions to acquire this but the device did serve its objective.

The automated devices field of reference was further augmented during the period an enzymologist assumed responsibility for recording parasitic agents. The process itself turned out to be tedious and needed a great deal of hands-on contribution from the engineer that intensely bounded the output of the system. By employing the automated liquid-handler communicated before the throughput of the architecture was almost trebled and the span of lab robotics was born. Attraction to lab automation consequently increased and its appliance became a common place in every chemistry laboratory. Departments designed and established automation facilities for each subdivision of the company's work with a lot of these sectors receiving distinction over other divisions. To that moment a number of mechanisms where created locally because of the fact automated device makers hadn't at that time been corroborated. Many companies at that time further inflated their facilities to the whole base and had their science included in each and every position of the enterprise. Utilizing these robots thousands of compounds had the ability to be tested in one day, allowing them to undertake testing on a massive scale.

Enthusiasm soon shifted from tactical operations right through to the industry of augmenting automated devices that combined both, the hardware component and the software programming aspect of these machines. The purpose of their contemporary technology was to collect and examine data without the need for abstract interaction or information. Now that this field has increased, the need for businesses to undertake this task privately reduced in size and corporations started to outsource these roles. Engineers quickly became experienced in the field of biochemical science as well as the science of business growth and investment. Through involvement with other bodies, the opportunity arose for profession development as well as blossoming a stronger understanding of the automation they worked on.

There turned out to be an increasing requirement to improve the use of automation in preparation stages for laboratory testing and sampling. Test systems had to be created that required reduced input by testing room technicians and automated specialists. Adopting these hypotheses and with the objective of applicability to live-environment tasks, automatic machines have went from nowhere to being prominent and the area for the next few years is describable. I am excited to be working with this technology at this time and I hope to further advance my own findings in the future. This will be one of a series of articles on this matter.

Improvisations to Make Distance Learning in India for Better GER

The 12th five-year plan is geared up to achieve a 30% GER from the present 15% GER of students in the higher education segment. Attracting larger numbers from the student segment not only demands accessibility but also affordability, flexibility and relaxations in the eligibility criteria. With these workable and viable parameters, distance learning serves as the rider to mass education, and, can considerably expand its scope to bring in more students to continue their education.

Distance learning has grown in shape and size, and at present accounts for 22% of the total GER of students in the higher education segment. Considering the needs of the Indian mass, who want to pursue higher education, while continuing to work, distance education can be the bridge for aspiring students/working professionals to achieve their dreams. The areas, which can bolster the initiatives of distance learning in India, are:

Remote accessibility:

At present, India has 544 universities and 3132 colleges. The mushrooming universities in the country have not delivered easy access to students from remote areas. According to a survey, close to 24% of all enrolments in the higher education system is from the ODL system. To boost this percentage, Distance Learning Universities can focus on opening up information/learning centers in regions with low GER, but a vast student potential. This apart, in view of the internet penetration in the country, the online medium of training and studying can be adopted in regions with prominent internet presence.

Innovative pedagogy for higher employability:

As the competitive job industry looks for skilled work-force, students with industry-relevant knowledge about the subjects they have studied, have a brighter chance to land in the right job. Industry - oriented training through cutting-edge course modules, with a right balance between practical and academic training, make a distance learning course more relevant in the modern-day scenario. For instance, SMU-DE's online platform EduNxt features many avenues for all-round learning and development of its students and has a vast student base.

Placement services

Universities such as IGNOU and SMU-DE provide placement services to its students. SMU-DE has a dedicated placement cell, which is networked with the major employment exchanges of the country.

In addition, Job fair initiatives taken up Distance Learning Universities will assure prospective students of the career prospects post a distance learning course.

Introducing new-age courses, economy-based, vocation-sciences

The market-trends determine the growth of different industries and thereby different opportunities. India, being an agricultural economy holds a lot of prospects for professionals who can research on agricultural sciences and give innovative solutions to the Indian farmers. Distance learning courses pertaining to agriculture is more relevant for the larger populace, who would be eager to add value to their family business of farming or otherwise. Similarly vocation sciences training have greater application for the labour force- the semi-urban or the rural section of the society, who can acquire additional skills and earn a better financial status.

Distance education universities such as IGNOU has instituted Schools of vocational education training to promote the study of vocational sciences. In this regard, SMU-DE offers fashion design, and journalism and mass communication courses for students seeking self-employment or job-ready skills at the end of the course; as the vocational sciences subjects centre on hands-on training.

The vernacular medium for education

Primary education in the semi-urban and rural areas is delivered in the vernacular medium. The numbers of students willing to pursue higher education but step back because of the language barrier account for large numbers. Distance Learning courses, if delivered in the vernacular medium, yield the double-advantage: firstly, it can attract more students to continue education and secondly, the ease and comfort of learning in one's mother tongue gives a better understanding of the subject and thereby delivers better results.

Quality with affordability

Quality stands top for all students. And, when distance education comes on par with the regular stream of learning with timely delivery, excellent interface with its students, up-to-date course materials, more number of students will resort to take to distance learning as their main stream.

Relaxations in eligibility-entry, exit, re-entry

Compared to regular stream of learning, which imposes the 10+2+3 norm, the eligibility criteria for any distance learning course is less stringent. Further relaxations can be brought in for students, who have the merit to pursue higher education but do not satisfy certain criteria, especially those who had to discontinue studies and are keen on studying further.

Education loans and Scholarship schemes

Distance education universities can initiate student loan schemes on subsidised interest rates. This way, the deserving students from the economically weaker sections can continue their education without hassles. Scholarship schemes can work in tandem with loans to make the pursuit of higher education simple and flexible.

Distance education holds the promise of reaching quality education with affordability to students across the country.

How to Design a Restaurant: The Basics

When designing a restaurant, there are many things to consider. Before starting out on such a large project, however, it is important to understand the basics of good restaurant kitchen design. During the course of this article, we will outline the basic principles of good design. Remember, though, there is no substitute for a good designer, and somewhere along the line, you will have to fork out for some professional help. Knowing the basics, though, will set you in good stead for what can be a very rewarding enterprise.

Do not be rigid in your ideas

Sometimes, you will arrive at the table with a fully formed idea. This, however, is rarely the best way to proceed. Along the way you will develop new ideas; you will find reasons for why your original design fell short of the mark; and you will encounter problems that are insurmountable with the plan you had in mind.

Flexibility is, therefore, the key. It is important that you approach the design with an open mind that you are willing to bend and flex in order to create a design that is unprecedented.

Within the industry, we call this the architectural approach: the design grows with you, and the final result is far better than one that you can sketch out in your mind beforehand. The architectural approach is one that many artists adopt, and to create a masterpiece, you must be willing to step out of the rigidity of fixed plans.

It will also help you to cope when you are met with unexpected, and unanticipated, obstacles.

Basic and simple is the key to good design in the 21st Century

We may have a belief that the more complicated a design, the better it will be when completed. This is wrong; good design is all about simplicity. Everything needs to be cut back to basics: straight lines, solid materials, simple décor.

Understated is by far the most attractive of all design plans (whether fashion, interior decoration, or large pieces of architecture).

Think about how you want people to move through the kitchen

When running a commercial kitchen, efficiency is of paramount importance. Your staff needs to be able to move freely though the kitchen, without getting in other people's way. The key to this is good, well-thought out, design. You need to think about the busiest areas of the kitchen, and design them logically. For example, it would be silly to have the collection point (the area where the waiters and waitresses pick up the dishes and take them out to the main restaurant to serve) at the back of the kitchen. It needs to be as close to the dining area as possible.

There are plenty of things to consider here, too. You need, for instance, to have preparation areas near to the freezers and ovens of that area. You need the meat worktop to be next to the meat freezer and the ovens. This keeps each section clean and self-contained, and helps to prevent accidents or cross contamination.

Bringing Back Handmade - Are We Now Seeing the Appeal?

What has happened to our handmade culture? There have been many TV shows recently showcasing British talent, real handmade manufacturing done right here on our own soil, going back to something we appear to have left behind.

The biggest key change in our culture over recent years is wanting something for nothing. We are a nation willing to sacrifice quality for price. Our demand has increased, we want things "now" and at exceptionally low costs.

But are we also a changing culture? With the real love for Vintage fashions and accessorising, we have begun to recognise that in fact quality is worth a lot more and the days of real manufacturing should no longer be a thing of the past?

Recent TV personalities such as Mary Portas have certainly made a case for this. Mary's most recent TV show (The Bottom Line) aimed at kick starting the British manufacturing industry again, promoting home manufacturing rather than outsourcing and mass producing. She explains that this isn't about paying over the odds for goods, it is just anti the cheap products that compromises ethics, quality and values, "You know what the truth of this is: stop being so greedy. It's greed and gain that got us into the state this country's in today".

As a consumer we are seeing an increased awareness that perhaps cheaper mass produced products come at a cost. Consumers are now leaning towards quality goods, knowing that this is what we as a nation deserve and should strive for.

But how do we go about purchasing unique hand made products? It is true to say that finding little boutiques on the average high street is increasingly difficult. So how do we live out this ideal? It is a fact that online shopping is big news in the UK and gaining in popularity. With this shift in our purchasing habits we have been graced with some great websites where consumers are able to purchase such goods direct from the designers and hobby crafters (such as and

A real trend has also seen the popularity of second hand shops particularly those that promote vintage style. This has really helped boost interest in an era of elegance and quality.

The popularity for vintage style has most certainly grown over recent years. More and more individuals are seeking an alternative way of defining their style and culture. Pushing the boundaries and taking their images back into "vintage decades" they think best reflect them.

The wedding stationery industry is also starting to realise this and where once there were very bland mass produced cards, there now seems to be a demand for something unique, something that reflects the couples style and individualism. Couples want to wow their guests announcing their wedding with style, making theirs stand out from the rest.

Again, the term "vintage" has been a great boost for this industry as more and more designers are beginning to realise that there is more to wedding stationery than just a printed piece of card.

Slowly we are beginning to see wedding stationery evolve into handmade products, where designers use elegant touches such as vintage styled jewelled embellishments, buttons, lace and pearls.

Our passion for an era gone-by has been a great boost to the design industry showcasing British talent and style, encouraging handmade luxury.

But will this passion be enough to take on the mass produced industry? Even if a new fad kicks in and the image of Vintage begins to fade for some, I would like to think that it has at least opened a gateway to peoples understanding of quality and beauty. The hope is that we encourage and promote the growth of handmade products. We should view such products as a way of growing our sense of individualism and reflecting our style in a way that mass produced goods just can't do.

Experienced Business Coach Offers Suggestions on What It Takes to Grow a Business!

Three Imperatives for Business Growth

What underpins the success of those companies committed to business growth is that they do not try to play the game better than their competitors but rather they play a different game. These companies compete with a different strategy (or business model) and aim to compete with different rules in their markets so as to avoid head on competition.


Business model innovation is to offer the same products (or services) as their mainstream competitors but emphasises different attributes from those emphasized by the traditional business models of established competitors - in other words they sell them on the basis of a different value proposition. Thus whereas Seiko and Timex sold their watches on the basis of accuracy and functionality, Swatch took the market by storm by emphasizing benefits of design and fashion! Swatch did not discover the watch - it redefined what the product is and why the customer should buy it and uncovered a great opportunity for business growth.


The behaviour of every individual is conditioned by their individual mental model of the world. The most dominant mental model that any company has is its perception of what business it is in - and consequently its vision. The vision (or definition) that a company gives to its business conditions how that company and its stakeholders see its business. An appreciation of how vision can be used to motivate and draw support for a business cannot be underestimated. Note what Robert Polel, CEO of the Gucci Group said to explain Gucci's moves into such things as playing cards and chocolate: "We are not in the business of selling handbags; we are in the business of selling dreams!" Simply stated, as a picture of the new and better world that the business wishes to create, vision becomes a powerful leadership strategy underpinning business growth.


Scaling up a business model with a distinctive offer of value allows a company to achieve rapid growth. But it also serves another useful purpose; it protects it from competitive confrontation. Information Communications Technology can let a company quickly scale up a new business model and so ensure sustainability. CEMEX, the Mexican cement company, redefined the way customers purchased cement using ICT to deliver just-in-time cement to enable their customers to reduce their prices to end users. Today CEMEX is the best performing large company in the cement industry!

How Effective Is Online Training in Enhancing Workforce Productivity

For an organization-wide training program to be truly effective it has to fulfill many purposes. First of all, the training modules should be designed keeping in mind that it covers all possible areas of a particular subject matter. The best instructors and trainers should be hired to teach; and the entire process of registration and communication with the employees should be managed methodically. A streamlined approach to all these three factors can enhance the overall effectiveness of a training program. Online training management solution is a Cloud-based software application that makes this possible by automating a large number of significant, back-end operations.

Many people are skeptical about the efficiency of online training. However, whether training should be delivered online or onsite entirely depends on the industry and the organization in question. If the training requires hands-on practical skills, then obviously an online training will not suffice. However, if it is software-based training or computer-aided designing or manufacturing training then one can surely opt for a web-based training program. Then it is no longer logical to organize an instructor-led on-site training program. In fact, in such cases, web-based training programs are found to be more effective in improving employee skills. A larger number of employees can be included in the program and if a business has offshore facilities then they can make the training available to employees deployed at those locations as well. The entire proposition is far more affordable than organizing an onsite program.

Nevertheless, on availing a comprehensive online training management solution, any kind of training program is managed in a superior fashion. The software helps in fast creation and uploading of online training registration forms that can be accessed by all, 24/7. Payment processing can be done confidently by using the associated online payment management solution. One can track the registrations and payments being made online in real time and store the data securely in a centralized database that can be accessed round the clock. All employees, trainers, stakeholders, and key customers can be communicated effectively using the bulk email messaging tool; and the training program can be promoted widely across social media channels using powerful productivity tools designed exclusively for the purpose.

Moreover, there are many other features and facilities of online training management solution that makes a training program even more effective, be it onsite or online. The software facilitates have significantly improved student-instructor interactions. This is a great advantage since in a traditional training set-up most of the times trainees fail to interact uninhibitedly with their instructors. There is an unseen barrier between them. Instructors deliver their lectures, study material is handed out at the end of the sessions. Even if there is an open-question session at the end, it is wrapped up within a very short span of time. In online training or in an onsite training, which is organized using training management software, this is not the case. Students and instructors can interact with each other via a number of social media tools.

All these facilities make the training interactive and productive to a great extent.

Indian Clothes for White People

Do white people (or western origin people to be politically correct) wear Indian clothes? Should they wear Indian clothes? Do they care? Let's look at each of these questions in a little more depth.

Do white people wear Indian clothes?

Non-Indian people usually consider clothes from India an occasion driven dress. They tend to buy clothes for key events like a friends or colleagues wedding or when they travel to India. Each of these occasions seldom arises in the lifetime of this segment of people. In order to get fully immersed into the event and the culture, white people wear clothes from India in traditional styles.

Should they wear Indian clothes?;

Wearing a certain type and style of clothing is a very personal choice for people. If the situation demands that Indian Clothes be worn, then yes - even white people should wear such clothes. For other times, it would be considered unusual for white people to be wearing Indian clothes, so should be avoided. Occasions that demand such clothes are very specific and are enumerated below.

Do they care?

An increasing trend towards globalisation and a lot of western stars like Niki Minaj, Oprah Winfrey, Rihanna, etc. wearing Indian designers are certainly a strong influence for people to start knowing about clothes from India. Each of these designers has chosen leading Indian fashion designers for important events. Indian designers create products that are unique and stand out amongst so many generic designers and styles.

Hence people in the west or white people are wearing more Indian clothes. Not all of them are traditional in styling, but Indian designers and hence Indian clothes make them.

The styling, cut and colour of clothes chosen by this segment of customers is normally very different compared to Indian customers. The choices are usually towards tighter and better fitting silhouettes, minimalistic styling and detailing. The cut of the clothes usually varies by the age of the customer, but can it be modest or more modern and trendy - the choice is fairly broad. The colours are usually lean on pastel shades. Of course a lot of the choice depends on the season and the number of times that people expect to be wearing these garments. In general, these are seen as an investment and a one-time buy by people - so they tend to spend more money that one would normally expect of them.

Undermount Kitchen Sink - A Fantastic Choice for Your Cooking Area

Kitchen sinks confer you a lifetime leak-free service. An undermount kitchen sink is seized in position with metal attachments that are fixed to the bottom of the stone with the two-part objects that processes fast and has implausible rigid strength. This sink also encompasses a valve for water inlet and an outlet arrangement. These sinks are simply sleek in nature and look gorgeous with smooth skin, which are easy to maintain and have great finishing touch.

The farm sinks give fragrance of precedent era and hold an impression as same as that of retro age. They are called an apron sink for the reason that of the falling apron chic as of the conventional ones. They are available in elegant cast iron and in stainless steel. These sinks are nowadays fashionable in new buildings also. An ordinary kitchen can transform into an imperial one with such neat, modern and pioneering kitchenware sinks.

There are compound sinks which are preeminent in quality being temperature resistant and scratch resistant. Therefore mummies, you no need to be bothered if you want to throw away something from your frying pan! It won't thaw down the upper surface of your sink. These sinks give an archetypal and stylish appearance to your kitchen making it more elegant and magnificent.

Stone-made undermount kitchen sink is also prominent in marble and also in soapstone. They are also available in bronze veneer as well as of brass and copper veneer however these needs supplementary concern as there is risk of losing its glittery surface. The durability of the sinks is well and reliable. They would give your kitchen a modern-day look. The diversity in sinks is so extraordinary that you can always have what you desired for according to your penchant. The most chief point about these undermount sinks is that they don't develop stain or doesn't breaks up when weighty stuffs are plunged into your sink. They, in turn give a contemporary look to your smooth walled kitchen.

Installation of all these sort of kitchen sinks is quite easy which an amateur can also do; however, the installation of farm sinks should be laid down in hands of a proficient person. These sinks are accessible in vast variety with exceptional designing outlines and silhouettes. They are not much expensive and their stoutness is marvelous, so whatever it is would be pretty worth spending.

These sinks are exceptionally novel and designed by proficient engineers who have executed their job without any loop holes. The undermount kitchen sink is smooth with oval corners which make it eye-catching and exquisite. Its surface is smooth and shinning. Seize gratification in using noble sinks for your imposing preference and make your kitchens more majestic than ever.

So gift your kitchen with this cool and trendy undermount sinks and make your kitchen look more enchanted. These sinks are a brilliant mix of rank and trend. They are matchless in quality which is not flawed with hot-oils and ultimately makes your kitchen experience blissful, which is something you had been waiting ever since!

Extraterrestrialism: Our Out-Of-This-World Inheritance And Legacy

Origin of the Universe

* Once upon a time there was this Big Bang.

* Since we are a part of the Universe, and since the Universe had an origin (the accepted standard model being the Big Bang event some 13.7 billion years ago), that alone of necessity means we have an extraterrestrial legacy since everything that makes you, you was born in that event, thereby in a manner of speaking making you 13.7 billion years old!

Origin of Our Stellar Solar System & Earth

* As it was in the beginning, well so too did our Sun and Planet Earth have a beginning.

* We are Star Stuff. Our solar system, our Sun, the planets, including Earth, were all formed out of the remains of extraterrestrial gas, dust and debris from older stellar systems, scattered to the four interstellar winds by supernovae explosions, over four and a half billion years ago. Thus, that too alone, no matter which way you slice it, means we (as beings part and parcel of our stellar system) are extraterrestrial in origin.

Origin of Life

* The terrestrial origin of life may have happened within that petrii dish/test tube called Planet Earth - Or maybe not. IMHO it happened way too quickly and way too soon post Earth's formation to probably have been a solely terrestrial happening. There's an alternative called panspermia which expands both the time and space available for life's origin by many order of magnitudes.

* Panspermia is the idea that Earth was seeded by cosmic spores or microbes that were expelled from some other planetary abode in some other stellar system and drifted across the gulf of space. An incredibly tiny fraction of these cosmic spores lands on suitable planetary environments, where they survive and thrive and evolve. Our Earth was one such place for their lucky landing. It's akin to a plant producing millions of spores - 99.999% of which fail to land on fertile ground; but that tiny fraction that does is all it takes to keep the species keeping on keeping on.

* Balistic panspermia is a slight variation on traditional panspermia in that the microbes or spores are inside the protective covering of a solid object - dust or tiny rocks, even massive rocks. These, alone with their microbial passengers get blasted off home turf by incoming ballistic objects (impacting meteors), escape their home planet and a few eventually, by chance land on another suitable abode. That Mars rock, ALH84001 that caused such a stir several years back is one such example of a potential case history of ballistic panspermia.

* Directed panspermia is yet another variation on the theme, only in this case there's intelligence behind the scenes, either sending out canisters of microbes willy-nilly in a shotgun manner, and/or directing that canister specifically at a chosen target.

* The upshot is if terrestrial life's origin was via a form of panspermia, then we humans, being a species of terrestrial life, ultimately had an extraterrestrial origin. If a Mars rock full of microbes impacted Earth billions of years ago, well, we might be the Martians transplanted from the fourth rock to the third rock from the Sun. Perhaps our origins were even farther a-field. Perhaps some cosmic gardener planted life here billions of years ago, maybe even stuck around to fertilize, cultivate, prune, and weed that garden.

Extraterrestrial Life, Intelligence, Civilization and Technology: The Fermi Paradox

* The Fermi Paradox can be summed up simply enough by pointing out that as long as you assume the existence of at least one other technologically advanced extraterrestrial civilization with the same sorts of 'boldly going' drives as we humans have (i.e. - plain old curiosity, the what's on the other side of the hill, if nothing else, then just as humans explored and colonized Planet Earth in a tiny fraction of the Earth's existence, technologically capable extraterrestrials would have explored and colonized the Milky Way Galaxy in a tiny fraction of its existence. In the case of humans, we don't need to ask "where is everybody?" We're everywhere. In the case of ET, we do ask "where is everybody?" They should be here. Scientists say they're not, never have been, and thus have to explain the paradox. On the other side of the fence, those who see evidence in those 'ancient astronauts' and in UFOs have no paradox with which to have to come to terms with.

* The 'Gods' arrive. Very few people today would try to defend the position what in the vastness of the cosmos we, human beings, are the proverbial intelligent 'IT' within that cosmos. Since we are the new boys on the block, having only existed as a unique species several hundreds of thousands of years at best in a Universe that's 13.7 billion years old, the odds are pretty good that our intellectually cosmic superiors are out there. Now on the likelihood that at least one such superior extraterrestrial intelligence will boldly go and explore the cosmos, let's define 'cosmos' and restrict that term to our ten billion years old Milky Way Galaxy, the time it would take that extraterrestrial intelligence to explore every nook and cranny of our Milky Way Galaxy is but a tiny fraction of the age of our galaxy. By analogy, Planet Earth has existed four and a half billion years; yet as noted above our 100,000 plus year old species crawled all over it in real quick-smart fashion, as did the bacteria, plants, insects, and other life forms as well. Translated, since there's nowhere to hide Planet Earth from the 'I spy with my little eye' aliens, we've been found! The extraterrestrials have arrived, not yesterday but millions of yesterdays ago. And since Planet Earth is a hospitable bio-friendly place, one with a pretty unique property - a biosphere - they decided to stick around and set up camp. Because these beings are high-tech, and because any sufficiently advanced technology is something supernatural to any sufficiently lower technological civilization (like us), that supernatural quality gets interpreted as beings who ARE supernatural - deities or 'gods' - not interpreted by the great unwashed primitives as flesh-and-blood extraterrestrials. Our cultural mythologies, worldwide, are full of references to 'star beings'; 'guardians of the skies'; 'sky gods'; 'gods in the heavens' and gods who come from the stars or who are associated with specific stars and constellations, most notably Cygnus, Sirius and Orion.

Origin of Humanity

* Just about every religious mythology, and every culture has one, well you'll find something along the line that the gods (or God) created human beings. Let's take that at face value. Now 'created' doesn't mean creating something from scratch. If you 'create' a plank of wood, you create it from an existing tree or log, not from your home chemistry set (though in theory you could do so since ultimately chemicals make up wood). You probably 'create' your meals from ingredients you got from the supermarket. Again, your home chemistry set had nothing to do with it, and even if you did grow your own vegetables and herbs and raise your own chickens and pigs, you still started from existing ingredients - seeds and other advanced biological products like eggs and baby pigs. That analogy equally applies to the case of the 'gods' creating humans. They didn't start from clay and dust and the gods' equivalent of a home chemistry set. They started work on pre-existing advanced ingredients.

* At this point of course, based on previous remarks, you realise that there are no gods. The 'gods' are of course just technologically advanced extraterrestrials with intellectual powers and abilities far beyond those of mortal humans.

The 'Gods' Create Humans

* What's common in mythology is not only do the 'gods' create humans, but we (humans) were created in their (the 'gods') image. Alien genetic engineering assists in providing an explanation. Now the 'gods' have a choice. They can do the hard work here on their new Planet Earth, their home-away-from-home abode, or else they can employ the natives to do the hard work for them. Unfortunately, when they arrived, there were no suitable native life forms they could employ to do that work, so, it's creation time - the 'gods' create, dada, the human species - all of them, one step at a time; there's no immediate creation of modern Homo sapiens. Fortunately, the 'gods' have some promising genetic material to work with - the primates in general and the chimpanzees in particular. Now what clues do we have that we're a part of this Planet, but at the same time apart from this Planet; that there's something slightly screwy about human beings.

* One item more than slightly screwy is just that super, ultra, amazing, coincidence that each and every one of our more than 20-plus hominoid ancestral species went extinct - each and every one. All the in-betweens bracketing chimpanzees on one side to Homo sapiens on the other - kaput. That really defies the odds and the natural order of things. Could it be that once an ancestor had been genetically engineered and given rise to the next generation that that species was no longer of any use and cast off to fend for itself yet not having evolved naturally, being unable to do so?

* The sudden arrival of culture about 50,000 years ago is puzzling. Around the parts of the world that were inhabited by various species of humans, culture arrived in a relatively short period of time. Things like cave art and petroglyphs; mother goddess 'Venus' statuettes; burials and grave goods (implying the concept of an afterlife). Why? Whenever something happens very suddenly, in diverse places to boot, one might look towards a guiding hand of outside intelligence.

* The sudden arrival of civilization about 8,000 years ago is equally puzzling. Once upon a time all humans were nomadic hunter-gatherers. Some human bands still are. However, many human societies, around 8,000 years ago give or take (6,000 BC or thereabouts) underwent a career change and developed agriculture and animal husbandry and settled down. We became 'civilized'. Small settlements became villages; some villages morphed into towns some of which in turn grew large enough to become cities. That transition happened in a relatively short period of time in various cultures that at that time had no cross-pollination. Why? The traditional nomadic to quasi-nomadic hunter-gatherer way of life, a way of life practiced by all other animal life forms (predators are the hunters; prey the gatherers) served us well too for millions of apparently natural evolutionary years. So what changed unless it was artificial manipulation from outside forces? It's either that or coincidence stretched to the breaking point.

* Human societies have creation mythologies, and not just of humans, but by all rights shouldn't since there's no obvious first-cause creations that have transpired within individual human memories and overall histories. Some external power must have clued our remote ancestors that there were such things as first-cause creations.

* Unique Human Traits

** Clues include the most obvious of the obvious that we come in breeds. We are one species but there are many racial/ethnic variations on the theme. How do we explain dog breeds and breeds of roses? - Human breeders. How do we explain human breeds? - Alien breeders!

** Our nakedness relative to our furry primate ancestors and current primate 'relatives' is another clue - there are multi-dozens upon dozens of primates; only one 'naked ape' (humans). Why did we alone lose our fur? I mean when the outside temperature drops much below the comfort threshold, we require in no uncertain terms clothing. When it hits freezing point, we can't survive without clothing, yet our furry animal cousins seem to manage A-OK. There's many an image of a furry mammal surviving, even thriving in the snow. Quite apart from the fact that fur is a better regulator of temperature than just sweating (our main means of temperature regulation), loss of fur resulted in other highly negative evolutionary rock and hard place restrictions. We've exchanged temperature regulation via fur for control via sweating. Humans of all the mammals are the species that sweats the most. The retrograde step of temperature control via sweating instead of fur imposed two additional restrictions on us. We were forced to stay close to reliable sources of fresh water and it also makes us way more dependent on supplies of salt since salt is excreted from the body via sweat. Salt supplies in the natural environment are rare - so rare that once upon a time salt was extremely valuable and you got paid in salt. It's were we get our word, salary from. If only we'd kept our fur. Now the relevant issue here is that Mother Nature doesn't tend to select for traits that decrease survival value. Therefore, perhaps something other than Mother Nature is at work here, maybe like Mother ET.

** Then there's our bipedal gait relative to the rest of the mammals. Name me one other mammal that routinely walks on two legs. That's probably because there are many negatives to a bipedal gait, like loss of stability and strife if you lose the ability to use one leg. Again, it's not like Mother Nature to encourage evolutionary features that have more negative implications relative to alternatives. We should have evolved as a traditional quadruped but with two additional arms!

** We show way more signs of visible aging than our animal cousins. Our cats and dogs don't tend to get grey hairs and wrinkles. Is this another sign of genetic tampering?

** Animals don't seem to have the same sort of need for bathroom/sexual privacy that we have - animals are hard to embarrass. They do what they have to do and don't give a damn who's looking. Did we inherit a sense of embarrassment from our creators?

** On the other hand, we also have a sense of humour that even the 'higher' animals seem to lack.

** There's our very high IQ relative to the rest of the animal kingdom, a comparison that's not even remotely a close contest. While that's not an evolutionary negative (well not so far at least), the awesome gap between us and our nearest intelligent rival species l is, well, just awesome.

* Why is the human species so vastly different in so many different ways from the rest of our animal kin? Might it be our extraterrestrial 'gods' that made it so? Then there's our ability to mate with the 'gods' and produce viable offspring.

The 'Gods' Mate with Humans

* We should be no more able to mate and be fertile with an extraterrestrial than we are with a species that's even far closer to us in terms of terrestrial ancestry, like felines say, unless aliens and humans are much closer in genetic similarity than is even remotely suspected. That therefore should put the kybosh on that alien-human possibility. As to the feline-human combo however, one could in theory manipulate the DNA and other genetic bio-molecules of the feline and of the human to be compatible enough to produce a cat with human features or a human with feline features. If you're advanced enough in genetics and biotechnology, just about anything goes. No doubt extraterrestrials that can traverse the depths of interstellar space will also be technologically advanced in other areas - like genetics. Regardless, mythologies are full of the 'gods' having their wicked way with Earth women (sometimes the reverse - 'goddesses' have their wicked way with terrestrial males), but in any event it gives a whole new meaning to that phrase "close encounters".

* Demigods are an obvious product of a 'god/goddess' mating with a mortal of the opposite sex. So by my reckoning at least demigods and demigoddesses like Gilgamesh, Brahma, and Shiva as non-Greek examples, and Achilles, Helen of Troy, Heracles, and like [King] Minos [of Crete] were really human-alien hybrids. For all you Christians and religious types, there are those Sons of God/Daughters of Men unions noted and logged in the Bible. Since many of them in turn mated with mortals and produced offspring, and they in turn ditto right on down the timeline, that means that most of us have probably a tiny percentage of our genetic makeup that is ultimately extraterrestrial in origin.

* Miraculous Births: if ET is a master at genetics, maybe ET is also a master at other anatomical wonders, or at least biotechnology..

** Much significance has been made of THAT virgin birth as recorded in the New Testament. However, Jesus isn't the 'lone ranger' when it comes to being born of a virgin. In addition to Jesus, there's the Assyrian/Babylonian Marduk; Zoroaster too was born of a virgin and a shaft of light! Many more examples can be found in mythologies from around the world. Of course what was miraculous back then isn't quite so miraculous now. They obviously hadn't heard about, or any conception of, artificial insemination, invitro fertilization way back then.

** Apart from virgin births, there's records of those giving birth way, way beyond their childbearing years, like Old Testament Sarah (born Sarai) giving birth to Isaac via Abraham, who, given his advanced years probably had a hard time getting it, well hard.

** Moses was born circumcised and was able to walk-the-walk and talk-the-talk immediately after being born.

** The Greek Goddess Athena was born fully formed and clothed when born from the head of Zeus; Aphrodite, like Athena, had a rather odd 'birth'. She was also 'born' thanks to some weird biology between seawater foam and those severed private parts of Zeus's grandfather, Uranus. Zeus also gave birth to Dionysus from his thigh. Helen of Troy, daughter of Zeus, was apparently hatched from an egg.

** While dealing with Greek mythology, it seems King Minos pissed off Zeus's brother Poseidon. Poseidon, ever inventive, caused Mrs. Minos (Pasiphae) to lust after a bull (and presumably the bull to lust after Mrs. Minos). The end product of this sexual union became that human-bovine hybrid, the Minotaur (and that's no bull!).

* All this is just barely scratching the surface. No matter the culture, you'll find something in the annals of their register of births that are quite out of the ordinary.

The 'Gods' Other Genetic Engineering Experiments

* Animal-Animal Hybrids: Why ancient cultures around the world depicted a menagerie of imaginary or mythological animals in their artwork, on their everyday utensils, clothing, jewellery, etc. as well as real animals is quite beyond me. You'd think there would be more than enough real animals to represent if they wanted to depict the images of animals. Or, of course, maybe their imagery of their imaginary zoology wasn't quite so imaginary. For example, imaginary beasties, animal-animal hybrids, often had an attachment of wings placed on common animals like horses (Pegasus) and lizards (dragons) and lions (Griffins). This was, well, commonplace. But surprisingly, as if lacking imagination, there are no winged cows or zebras or frogs or mountain lions. Not even common domesticated animals like cats and dogs were depicted with wings. Very selective, which suggests that which was so depicted was real. And how can you get a winged lizard (dragon)? Well it has to be genetic or bioengineering of some sort.

* Human-Animal Hybrids: Where does one start here since there are thousands of examples? You name the animal, and I'm certain somewhere, at sometime, that animal's head was depicted on a human body; or a human head was depicted on the animal's body. Any textbook on the gods of ancient Egypt will provide examples. Apart from that, there's the Minotaur (noted earlier), the Centaur, the (Greek) Sphinx, etc. Is this all human imagination on overdrive or something else?

* Shape-Shifting? While you might like to turn into a fly-on-the-wall that's impossible since said fly would have your mass and thus be unable to defy gravity. Oh, and even if you could figure out how to nullify gravity, you can't shape-shift into a fly so the problem is moot. However, that doesn't detract from the massive mythological literature that selected individuals can indeed shape-shift - Zeus is well known for that trick and not just from one organic form into another, but from organic into an inorganic form as well. The Mesoamerican Olmecs had a were-jaguar cult. Now shape-shifting is known in the biological world, albeit not sudden transformations. Tadpoles shape-shift into frogs; seeds into plants; babies into adults; flatfish (flounder) alter to have their eyes on one side of the head. Thus, it's not totally beyond the pale to suggest that shape-shifting totally belongs in the realm of science fiction, fantasy and horror (like werewolves). Either the concept of relatively sudden shape-shifting is nonsense, and there are myths and legends that say otherwise from all over the globe, or else some sufficiently advanced technology - super-science - is operating behind-the-scenes.

The 'Greys'

* Thus far I've been pretty much addressing the past - ancient mythologies and associated 'gods'. However, the pattern continues. Extraterrestrials are still, apparently, very much interested in biotechnology, genetics and genetic engineering. Enter, the 'Greys'.

* Genetic Harvesting: There are two separate areas suggestive of aliens in the here-and-now highly interested in terrestrial biochemistry, reproduction/sex and genetics. Animal mutilations are in no doubt a reality as something tangible. UFO abductions of humans being subjected to various medical / genetic / reproductive tests is equally reported, but not as equally validated. Still, it's not good policy to throw babies out with their bathwater and one really does have to come to terms with the question that revolves around why would anyone in their right mind make this stuff up? It's certainly not for fame or money!

** Animal mutilations are certainly well documented, and the cause(s) are mysterious to say the least. If human culprits, why hasn't anyone been apprehended, tried and convicted of violations of animal welfare laws, destruction of private property (if livestock) and trespass? If natural predators are to blame - well that should be bloody obvious if true and no controversy should therefore ensue. If extraterrestrials, well that explains a lot that natural predation can't like precision incisions and lack of blood and no hoof/paw prints and no signs of a struggle, though it also leaves mega-questions unanswered. Presumably, it has something to do with ET interest in terrestrial biochemistry and genetics.

** Human-Alien Hybrids: If UFO abduction accounts are taken at face value, then extraterrestrials are mightily interested in the creation of more hybrids - not animal-animal hybrids like the Chimera, or human-animal hybrids like the Mesopotamian Shedu (winged bulls with human heads) but human-alien hybrids, something perhaps akin to those alien-human ('gods' mating with humans) referred to above in all things mythological.

In conclusion, we have an extraterrestrial legacy because 1) we're a child of the Universe - a child that originated out of the origin of the Universe; 2) we're star-stuff; 3) the origin of life was probably 'out there' somewhere and migrated to Earth; 4) ET exists and the Fermi Paradox says ET must also exist here; and 5) there's just too much damn weird stuff around that falls better into place by assuming those 'ancient astronauts' and extraterrestrial UFOs.

Finding New Looks For Recycle Bins

There is more support for recycling than ever but that doesn't mean people like the traditional containers for recycling. Consumers want more from their waste disposal products and manufacturers are listening. Buyers today have a range of choices in recycle bin design.

The Traditional Look

Municipal containers for recycling are built for function rather than form. They are, in a word, ugly. They are boxy and ungainly, designed to accommodate the claw on a recycling truck for easy pickup and dumping. The bright blue color used by most cities is meant to make it easy for city workers to spot them, not for aesthetics.

On the other hand this look has help imprint them on the minds of consumers. We see that particular shade of blue and think "recycling". Attendees at an event can spot the place to toss that soda can from across the room so they are less tempted throw it in the convenient trash bin nearby. And, to be fair, the look works in industrial or even residential areas. However it's not really the best accent to an upscale party or executive office building.

The New Look

Manufacturers offer a wider range of options on today's containers for recycling. Buyers can shop an enormous palette of colors that rivals what they would find in a fashionable home design store. Two- or three-tone bins are common. It's easy to match the color scheme of the bin to the decor so they don't stand out.

Buyers can also choose from a variety of shapes and designs meant to satisfy both function and form. Multi-opening containers for recycling presorts the waste for more efficient disposal and a variety of shapes and sizes means you don't have to use the same recycle bins in parking garages and in public restrooms. Custom logos and advertising panels allow buyers to tailor the bins to meet high artistic standards.

The Balanced Look

It's possible to go too far when designing an attractive recycle bin. If an event planner orders containers for recycling that are so artistic people don't realize their purpose then nobody is going to use them! The bins should stand out from the background a little bit so people don't have to search for them.

Look for a compromise between looks and purpose to create bins that do the job without detracting from the surroundings. It's fine to tuck them discreetly out of the way or order bins sporting the same color scheme as the surroundings. The containers don't have to shout "recycle bin" but they should whisper it quietly.

If you still think of municipal containers for recycling as your only option, check out your local dealer to see the latest models. You'll be pleasantly surprised by how attractive and functional modern bins have become.

The Secret Law Of Attraction Tips

Is your love life on the rocks?

Always feel that you don't have enough money?

Feel like you are not achieving your true potential with your career?

Or are you are looking for that elusive ideal partner?

Well, by understanding the law of attraction you can learn how to alter your current situation and take control of your life instead of your life controlling you.

Making use of the law of attraction is not necessarily a hard thing but it will require learning and some effort on your part to change the way you think. Ultimately, in it's purest essence all you need to do is just be yourself, relax and let the universe bring abundance to you.

However that can be easier said than done. So to aid you in your quest we have put together the Top 5 Law of Attraction Tips that can transform your life in an instant.


Attitude counts in so many ways in your life. Therefore, if you are truly committed to changing the quality of your life for the better, maintaining a positive outlook is a must. Generally, if you have a positive attitude towards life, you will notice more and more people will want to be associated with you. You will also start noticing some major positive transformations in your life. You need to maintain that positive outlook and attitude even if things do not seem to be working out in your life, this is the true key to mastering the power of the universe. It's easy to think positively when everything is great in your life. Ideally, the essence of a positive outlook is to prepare you for the better things to come because you will already be living your life with an abundant frame of mind. You need to be able to see more good than bad in life so you will be better placed when great things start happening to you. This is also a great cure from stress. DON'T WORRY BE HAPPY

Tip number 2: VISUALIZE

Making a mental picture is another technique that you need to employ. You should not just focus on today and the here and now, be a visionary, look into your own future. See your life in a totally different perspective. Try to picture yourself driving those expensive cars, being financially healthy, being your ideal weight and sharing your life with your perfect partner. By doing this and really feeling like you are in the moment you will help bring together the necessary resources, positive vibrations and energy that will help your dreams come to fruition.

A vision board is another great way to help keep yourself in a positive frame of mind. You can make one on your computer with images of the things you desire or do it the old fashion way and cut out pictures from magazines and pin them to a board. Either way a picture says a thousand words when it comes to keeping your mind on track.


This is one of the most critical elements but most people get this simple step wrong. It is not enough to chant "I will get rich, I will get rich" 20 times a day and then go about your business. You need to BELIEVE, that is why you must create your own affirmations that are believable for you. Your sub-conscious mind cannot be tricked no matter what you are saying, if you truly don't believe that those things can happen then they wont.

It may also help to put down in writing everything you want to achieve in life because this is a physical act (writing) it can have a great impression on your sub-conscious. Affirmations also take on great power when spoken rather than just thought about, I personally find the louder the better , this can be hard initially as in our modern "zombie" like state we find it hard to truly express ourselves especially by shouting out aloud, we get embarrassed even when on our own, this is not a natural way to be. Sometimes a booming shout or scream can be a great release valve from the stresses of life. In the end if you are comfortable enough to say (or scream) your goals loudly, you can achieve them. The basic thing is to believe, and in this case, believe in yourself. Everything in life is achievable if only you can believe, dream and stick with your dream to see it come to life.


This is another critical and essential ingredient of the law of attraction. Success is all about maintaining focus. We know only too well that life is short (about 1000 months at best) and that time doesn't wait for anyone. So why waste time living a life you are unhappy with, your past actions and beliefs have brought you to this point, it is time for radical change, throw the rule book out of the window. As long as your goals are realistic, measurable and you have the true desire, there is nothing that can stop you from achieving the best things in life. You must ensure that are not distracted by the various things going on in your life at any given time. In essence, the more focused you are in life, the more chances you have of achieving the best outcomes. If you believe that you were born with the right to a life of freedom and happiness and that success will be part of your life, then there is nothing that can derail that from becoming your true destiny.


Modern life has many challenges. There will be many unpleasant issues that you will have to handle throughout your life. With all the many commitments in our lives, you might not be able to achieve all of your daily goals. Don't get despondent, just narrow down your scope and focus on certain elements that are critical to you and then work towards achieving just them until time and your mindset allows you to look at the big picture again. Once you have decided where you really want to be then you can make use of affirmations and most of all remain focused in all your ambitions, then there will be nothing that you cannot achieve. It all narrows down to one element and that element is commitment . Once you have all your strategies properly defined, you can then start working towards achieving your goals. It does not really matter whether you are fast or slow; the law of attraction is always working, so as long as you are progressing, you are heading in the right direction.

Finally, you need to love yourself if you want other people to love you. Love is the foundation that all the other laws are based on, they cannot exist without Love , be open and let the world surprise you. You can only achieve the best if you believe in yourself.

All of the above law of attraction tips are very critical but filling your life with Love is the most important lesson. This is not just love for another person in the traditional sense, this also means a love of your life, your circumstances, your work as well as family & friends of course.

Take Care My Friends

Photography - Preserving the History of Tomorrow, Today

Taking pictures allows someone to document the world as they see it, to focus on the aspects, details and characters that convey a message otherwise only captured through individual perspective. To one person a bridge appears as a mode of transportation, as a way from point A to point B, while another perspective sees the geometry in its construction as a physical testimony to its purpose. The geometry of the bridge itself is moving forward, as were the people that built it, as are the people that move across it now. So as one person photographs a straight ahead view of traffic and people, another captures the rising frame and interlocking pathways that carry them.

This perspective, once captured, represents historical documentation of a moment. A moment viewed by perhaps hundreds of other people, but none with the same perspective, none with the same mental imaging, none with the same photograph. While taken through personal perspective, photographs are selected for literature, textbooks and media based on commercial bias. They come to represent a time and place, not as it was, but through a symbolic bias. Instead of an event defining a photograph, the photograph comes to define the event.

The photograph begins to serve a purpose, a bias. Any photographer paid for photographs serves this bias. Their subjective perspective is purchased to be used as an objective idea. The camera and photographer begin to create specialized gazes through which ideas, communities, locations and events are depicted and understood. This specialized lens controls the dictation of weddings, food, fashion and crime. Marketed by the media, this lens works to define and change socially accepted norms and trends. Photojournalism and editorial photography create an advertising lens that informs entire populations of what they should buy, wear and eat. Photographs now dictate what a population needs to live as well as what the individual person needs to be happy.

In today's society, this objectivity created by commercial photography is under scrutiny and being challenged. Multimedia devices such as cell phones, Kindles and iPod Touches are found at just about every event and situation. Their ability to record, upload and distribute photographs creates something to say. A history and perspective, whether from across the street at a local café or from the heart of a protest on the National Mall, gets written down, told and spread. These devices, through their numbers and abilities, work to reverse the cycle. A numberless population, once allowed access to one photograph, one standard and one perspective, is now creating numberless perspectives, sharing them and finding flaws in the standard.

Why Is Cutting Glass So Expensive?

Purchasing a glass cutter machine is a big decision. A business owner, or hobbyist doesn't want to be wrong on a $2,500 purchase. Money is tight for most frame shops, hardware stores, re-modelers, window manufacturers, repair and maintenance departments.

When you see a machine that is about one-third the cost of the historically popular Fletcher machine, you are right to scratch your head and do some research. Get on the forums, call your friends and competitors and ask them how they have liked their Onyx 90 glass cutter machine. You will find that the overwhelming majority of Onyx 90 users are very happy.

Here is a list of some of the features and benefits of the Onyx 90:

  • Cuts mat board, foam board, glass, plastic, coroplast, and more.
  • Purchase one versatile machine to handle all your media cutting needs.
  • Cuts PVC foam board, used in the sign industry, much more quickly than the "old fashioned" manual way.
  • Easily cuts a sandwich of media up to 5/8" thick. This makes it easy to downsize that sandwich to fit a particular size.
  • Cuts all commercially available media sizes. Buy boards in larger sizes and save. Cuts 60" in the vertical, and is virtually unlimited in the horizontal dimension.
  • Work in the measurement system in which you are accustomed. Measurements in inches and millimeters
  • Stop ruining mount board, foam board, etc., because they slip and move as you cut them. The built-in media clamp holds the media without any creep. By the way, the media clamp is not used when cutting glass.
  • Measure once and cut many copies using the production stop. The production stop is included at no extra charge.
  • You need to change the carbide cutter, but you don't know where you put the refills? Not with the Onyx 90. The supplied turret wheel comes with 6-carbide wheels for glass cutting to make thousands of cuts. When one of the wheels wears out, simply rotate to a new one of the 6 carbide wheels on the turret.
  • Make thousands of plexiglas cuts with the included carbide plastic cutter tool. When the cutter tool gets dull, simply rotate the cutter in the holder for another couple thousand cuts. This saves time and frustration.
  • The razor cutting blades will dull after many cuts. We supply you with 100 razor cutting blades to make the Onyx 90 ready for many, many cutting jobs before you need to order more.
  • Part of the cost of purchasing a machine is getting it shipped to your home or business. If the machine must come by motor freight, plan on spending more than you two to three hundred dollars... depending on your location. The Onyx 90 is FedEx / UPS shippable! It is much less expensive than motor freight. You save about 50% on delivery cost.
  • Machines that are in the field look like new. They are constructed of anodized aluminum and stainless steel for strength, appearance, and long-lasting use.
  • The Onyx 90 is engineered to last a life time. Buy it once and use it for your long career - then sell it when you retire.
  • Part of the creative design is the use of oil impregnated bronze bearings. These bearings will protect the aluminum to steel interfaces from wearing out over the many years of service.
  • When steel comes in contact with concrete or brick, it will corrode and eventually weaken over time. Because we use stainless steel wall mounting brackets, you can be assured that the mount won't corrode and weaken when mounted on a concrete or brick wall.
  • Changing tools is a real time waster. We have the fastest tool changing in the industry, saving time, money, and frustration.
  • Making sliding parts move smoothly is an art... especially when you cannot use oil. The UHMWP bushings allows your slide to remain accurate, tight and smooth for a life-time without oil.
  • Even if something should possibly go wrong, you are protected with a 5-year warranty. The company that manufactures the Onyx 90 has been in the business over 35 years.
  • We are proud to say that it is "Made in the USA"

How can the Onyx 90 glass cutter be a better machine and cost two-thirds less money? This is one of the major problems the Onyx 90 has. People have been thinking that if it costs more, it must be better. In many cases, this is true, but in this case, it is not true.

Here is the way to look at it that may help you to understand how it is done. The cost of a machine, any machine, is made up of many components. Some of the most obvious components are the cost of the materials, the manufacturing costs, the advertising costs, and the overhead costs of the owners, the president, vice-presidents, line managers, human resources department and so on.

The company that manufactures the Onyx 90 in North Carolina doesn't have vice-presidents, human resource departments, line managers and other overhead costs. They pass along those cost savings to their customers. By the way, they have been in business for over forty years, and have been selling the Onyx 90 for many of those years.

Why would anyone pay that much for a machine made outside the United States, when you can have a better machine that only costs $799.00? Yes, the Fletcher machine is made outside the United States.

Be careful, don't be duped by a high price. Just because a machine costs more, doesn't mean that it is a better machine. The Onyx 90 has been on the market for many years, and the machine has been performing outstandingly well. Check it out before you make an expensive mistake and buy a machine based on its high price.

Active Support and Social CRM in Modern Business

An emerging trend in the business world is the application of Social CRM, or Social Customer Relationship Management, to day-to-day business activities. Within this broad category lies a more specific field of customer relationship management called Active Support. Active Support refers to the utilization of online social networking services in the handling of customer service and technical support. It emerged with the popularization of social media, and is often used in conjunction with more traditional e-mail- and telephone-based customer service.

Basic Concept

Active Support is carried out on online social networking sites. An entity creates a profile, and open their public comment space to customers to submit their customer service inquiries. The entity can comment on each inquiry, and the exchange is carried out much like any other customer service call. New submissions can be seen by anyone, leaving the exchange in a very public domain. The exchanges can also be used to improve the image of a company, should it perform exceptional service in front of an Internet audience.

Public Nature

A unique aspect of Active Support is its public nature. In most cases, previous inquiries are left public and searchable, allowing customers with identical issues to resolve their issues without contacting the provider. The public nature, however, also requires the provider to exercise caution when answering in order to avoid mistakes or PR incidents.


Whereas phone and e-mail services might cost a company to maintain, Active Support systems are typically based on free, existing social networking services, and no cost is incurred by the company or customer.


As it is Internet-based, Active Support is not subject to telephone network issues or congestion. It is subject to Internet service outages, however.

In Businesses

Several companies have adopted active support in addition to their existing customer service pathways. Companies ranging from UPS and The Home Depot, to Best Buy and Virgin Mobile USA are actively engaging with their customers via Twitter.


One of the most common methods of providing Active Support is by communicating with users via Twitter. Twitter has an advantage in its speed, leaving very little downtime between first contact from the user and connection to a representative of the company. Ideally, the problem can be solved with publicly posted tweets, but in some cases a more in-depth conversation is necessary and can thus be switched to the more traditional channels of phone- or net-based service. Facebook pages can be used in very much the same fashion, but it's typically more difficult to find users with complaints unless they directly post on the company's Facebook page.

Decorating Inspiration From Past Decades

Looking for different ideas to decorate your home - then instead of looking forward look to past decades for inspiration. Choose your favourite decade from the roaring twenties, funky fifties or the psychedelic seventies. If you do this carefully by just introducing a few items or fabrics which reflect the decade of your choice your house will end up looking stylish and not dated or a museum piece.

Décor in the twenties was very stylish with art deco styling being the height of fashion within interior design. These designs have been updated and are available on the high street - think mirrored and glass furniture and sparkling chandeliers. Chandeliers can be used in any room but look particularly at home in bedrooms and living rooms. Wood should be dark with clean straight lines. Fabrics should be in sumptuous velvet and silk - velvets can be used for upholstered furniture - scallop shapes were very popular and can look also look good in modern interiors. In the bedroom upholster your headboard in velvet. Silk fabrics look fantastic as full length curtains as they drape really well especially if interlined, you can also use faux silks if you prefer. Search second hand and antique shops for an authentic art deco mirror or there are numerous reproductions around.

A trademark of fifties fabric is geometric designs in bright colours of reds and blues. Sofas and chairs can be upholstered in patterned fabric. Try mixing a patterned fabric sofa with a plain chair. Wooden furniture should be in light wood and have tapered legs. Sofas and chairs often have wooden legs and arms - you may be able to pick these up in a second hand shop and then have them re-upholstered. Chrome was very popular in the fifties - look for table and standard lamps with chrome bases.

The seventies had psychedelic patterns in bright colours - oranges, lime greens and turquoises. Use plain bold bright colours for sofas and chairs and then use psychedelic prints for cushions. Car boot sales are an ideal place to look for accessories such as vases and lamps from this era and can probably be picked up quite cheaply. Walnut furniture was a key trend of this decade. Thick pile carpets were very popular particularly in the lounge and bedrooms. Mix and match patterns and bright colours to capture the essence of this decade.

So choose your decade and mix and match authentic pieces found in second hand shops, antique shops or car boot sales with current high street pieces. An essential style tip to getting these schemes to look right is to choose the right curtain fabric which reflects the decade - there are lots of current curtain fabrics which 'nod' towards all of these decades and will be the main ingredient in getting your design scheme right.

Kristen Stewart: "I Don't Care" About Haters

Hollywood stars are generally no strangers to scandal and critique. Some actors, however, find that certain roles or series attract particularly strong reactions, some of them negative, and that the public hatred of their characters can spill over onto them. This public enmity can be made worse if the celebrities in question also have personal lives that do not stand up to the critical gaze of a negative audience. Over the last few years, this has happened to Kristen Stewart after her role as Bella Swan in the highly-divisive "Twilight" film series.

Throughout the five-year filming of the "Twilight" movies, Stewart has dealt with a great deal of harsh criticism and an ongoing campaign of negativity that seems to be divided between those who would like to be working opposite her co-star, Robert Pattison, and those who hate the films and the books that they are based on. She has been called any number of rude and derogatory names, subjected to microscopic analysis of her figure, complexion, and behavior, and generally accused of being inadequate at every turn. Those who do not like the series have also accused her of pandering to vapid fantasies.

As well as having to face down those who appear to detest her because of her part in the romantic vampire movies, Stewart has also had to deal with "Twilight" fans turning against her in droves after it was revealed that she had had a brief affair with Rupert Sanders, the married director of "Snow White and the Huntsman," whom she met while filming. The fans are now accusing her of disloyalty to the ideals of "Twilight" and of being a home wrecker and sexually promiscuous. Those who dislike "Twilight" are generally being quieter in tone than before the scandal was breached, but the general feeling is that she has somehow proven them right in their negative assessment of both the actor and the franchise.

So how is the young actor dealing with the waves of bile that continue to wash her way? In typically open fashion, Stewart refuses to let any of the negativity flowing her way get her down. She says that she does not care about the hatred piling up against her on the Internet and social media. She has gone on record as saying "It's not a terrible thing if you're either loved or hated," noting that the important thing for her is to continue to do her own thing. She has, however, apologized to those who are upset at her behavior, adding that she never intended to anger anyone.

Although Stewart has previously chosen to withdraw somewhat from public life as a response to the anger and hatred that people have poured in her direction, she now seems to be more centered and is looking to resume going out. She notes that her attempts to withdraw from criticism left her feeling closed off, and she hopes that resuming normal social activities will help her to connect with the public again. This mature response is a good indicator that she has developed a great deal in the last five years, whether despite or because of the adversity she has faced.

Stewart notes that she is rather shy by nature when not in character, and she has come to realize that this can come off as aloof or disinterested. She has also expressed a desire to be able to do her job without having to come up with regular soundbites, and she particularly dislikes talking about herself. However, her new resolution to handle the public-facing aspects of her chosen career in a more open way suggests that, as she approaches her mid-twenties, Stewart is developing the skills she needs to handle the ups and downs of celebrity in the Internet and communication age.

Rather than regretting her mistakes and their consequences, Kristen Stewart seems to be using them as an opportunity to develop and grow. She is seeking lessons rather than forgiveness, and this should stand her in good stead for the long and no doubt turbulent career that is often the reward for troubled Hollywood celebrities. Despite Stewart's insistence that she will not "kowtow to the celebrity-industrial complex," her natural outgoing character and spontaneous actions appear to create as much drama as her acting, which can only be good for her films' publicity. After all, without this sort of ongoing interest, whether positive or negative, stars very rarely hold the public's attention for long.

Cake Decorating Ideas: How to Choose the Perfect Wedding Cake

The cutting of the cake will be one of the most important photos in your wedding album. Few decisions are as delightful as choosing the perfect wedding cake. There are many types, colors, and designs to choose from. You want a wedding cake that not only looks beautifully, but has an amazing taste. The cake can be decorated with fondant or marzipan, frosted with colored butter cream, or filled with mousse. Typical decorations include bows and swirls, chocolate chips, edible flowers, ribbons, ruffles, and lace designs.

Here are a few simple tips on how to choose the perfect wedding cake:

Plan Things Ahead

Give yourself enough time to choose a wedding cake. Think about decorations, filling, toppings, color, and shape. Three to six months is enough time to make a decision. Be aware that talented pastry chefs who are in high demand can be booked out during the summer season.

Look for Cake Decorating Ideas

While your wedding theme might suggest the type of cake, there are plenty of options to choose from. Look in old family photos for cake decorating ideas, read wedding magazines, and search for blogs and websites featuring different types of cakes. Inspire yourself from the latest cake trends. Most wedding cakes are adorned with flowers made of silk or icing. You can also opt for fresh flowers. Inspiration can come from four places: the menu, location, fashion, and nature. Details from the wedding can influence the appearance of the cake.

Find a Reputable Chief

Check out general wedding sites and begin your research online. Talk with several chiefs before choosing one. Visit bakeries and ask to see pictures of their work. Ask a few questions before you make a decision. Can the cake stand the heat? How should the cake be displayed? How many tiers is it going to have? What colors and decorations are available? Discuss about cake size, cost, date and time of pickup, deposit amount, and number of guests. The cake you choose must taste as good as it looks.

Price It Out

Wedding cakes are usually priced by the slice. The more sophisticated the cake is, the higher the price tag. If you want lace detailing and elaborate molded shapes, you will pay for the designer's labor. A simple design will be less expensive. Most designers will work with you to create a wedding cake that suits your taste and your budget.

The Wide Array of Links of London Charms

No doubt Links of London has caused a revolution in the women's fashion and jewelry industry. A wide variety of women's jewelry such as bangles, bracelets, charms, earrings, rings and much more is offered in the retail stores. Many women already own bracelets. Others often decide to explore the vast array of charms that can be attached to the bracelets.

There happen to be various ranges of charms that are offered. Depending on their preference and individual taste, women will be able to find all sorts of charms at Links of London, such as those made from enamel or from some stone, or ones shaped like initials. The charms can be exclusively purchased from a single range or from a mixture of them all.

The simplest designs available are the silver initial charms that are available in the shape of all the letters of the alphabet that have simple, straight lines. These charms make the perfect anniversary, birthday or Valentine's Day gift because they can be used to spell out affectionate message like "LOVE YOU," names or sayings.

Stone charms from Links of London are also available in an extensive range of designs, including domes, rings and crosses. These charms are not only durable, but also have a feminine touch and are quite pretty. The ones that are cross shaped have the stone in the middle of a metal outline, while the dome shaped charms have the stone at the bottom and appear like droplets. The ones that are cross-shaped have the stone in the middle of a metal outline, while the dome-shaped charms have the stone at the bottom and appear like droplets.

Links of London charms are also made from enamel, and they do are available in several designs. In fact, these enamel charms are a lot more diverse and colorful. They are available in shapes such as big apples, birthday cakes, Catherine wheels, cocktail glasses and often even have messages on them too.

Thus, women actually get to reflect their lifestyles by creating building up unique charm bracelets using these charms. From Links of London, women will be able to find charms in all shapes and sizes for just about any special occasion or event, or simply for daily use. The store also specifically caters to special occasions like graduations, 21st birthdays and sweet 16s. Charms that incorporate elements from various special occasions are conveniently available.

Apart from enamel and stones, charms made from sterling silver and 18ct gold are also available as well. These gold and silver charms can make the perfect gift for a special woman. Even the gold and silver charms are available in a variety of shapes such as four leaved clovers, hearts, shoes, stars, etc. Charms are also made from white gold too, while others even have embedded diamonds in them. Thus, it is apparent that the variety of Links of London charms is quite diverse and vast.

Bring Out Your Dark Side This Halloween As The Black Swan

Halloween costumes are a crucial part of Halloween activities, and today is a great time for you to start researching the best Halloween costume ideas. Originally, costume themes centred round the supernatural, however in recent times it has become fashionable to select more sophisticated or humorous themes too. With that being said, the range of costumes to choose from has expanded exponentially as well and it is now less complicated to create unique Costumes for Halloween. Let us check on a just a few Halloween Costume ideas that could be used for 2012 Halloween costumes.

Who here is not familiar with the movie Black Swan; the tragic yet beautiful role of Nina Sayers played none other than by Natalie Portman.

Black Swan follows the story of a dancer, Nina, whose life revolves around her dance career. She was given the lead to the play called Black Swan but was seen fitting more for the role of the White Swan. The artistic director didn't think she had what it takes, the dark side, to play the role of Black Swan, but Nina was set to proof him wrong. In a turn of events, Nina finds herself getting more in touch with her dark side which became uncontrollable, and threatened to destroy her from within.

The captivating appearance that Nina carried as her role in Black Swan has captured so much attention around the world. So much so that it would be an excellent costume to wear for Halloween! The white version of the Black Swan is equally amazing and would be perfect to pair with the Black Swan if you're planning to spend Halloween with a friend or a twin.

The Black Swan Costume

To wear the dark side of the Swan, you'll need a black leotard, preferably with slender straps and the confidence to wear it. You'll also need a black tutu or ballet skirt. For added fun, why not get yourself a light-up tutu. They're very pretty, especially at night. Don't worry, the tutu is perfectly safe too and has a hidden switch to turn it off.

If you're willing to splurge a little bit more, an intricate black corset will enhance the look. Some feathers around the bodice will be perfect to recreate the Black Swan look. It is, after all, the look of swan you're after, and feathers will make you look more, um, swan-ish. Watch out though, they may tickle!

You'll also need a pair of white opaque tights and black ballet slippers to match your dress. You can also opt for ballet flats instead.

Your makeup can really give you that dramatic look. You'll need to paint your face and upper body white and have feathers painted around your eyes in black. Your lips need to be coloured blood red. Paint some feathers on your hands too. If its done correctly, you can really recreate the striking look of the Black Swan.

Oh yes, don't forget the tiara!

The White Swan Costume

Just in case you have someone who wants to go as the White Swan along with you, creating the look is simple. As far as costume is concerned, get everything the same as the Black Swan only everything in white. Makeup is not as dramatic with the White Swan. Just use white paint on the face and upper body to create the pale look.

You don't have to be dancer to carry these looks; you just need to have the courage to strut your stuff around in skin tight clothing!

The Excitement Of The Hunt For Vintage Women's Clothing

As a child, visiting my grandparents in East Sussex, one of the highlights of the weekend would be when my grandmother would whisper in my ear "there's a jumble sale on in the village hall later". We would set off, five and ten pence pieces aplenty in our pockets, filled with excitement and the anticipation of what treasures we might find, buried underneath the piles of other people's cast-offs. The village hall would be a seething mass of people, pushing and jostling to get to the front of the long trestle tables, loaded with crumpled clothes, the odd shoe poking out here and there. My grandmother was quite the expert and one tiny corner of fabric would be triumphantly pulled out to reveal an almost brand new men's shirt, perhaps. We would return home exultantly, bags bulging and then would begin the ceremony of displaying our 'finds' to the rest of the family, almost as if we had returned from the hunt with our 'kill'.

My grandmother's needs were more governed by the necessity of saving a few bob, back in the seventies, when I was a young girl, there were no thoughts of designer labels or of discovering a priceless limited edition handbag in those days. Vintage was not a word bandied about on people's lips and had not then acquired the kudos that it holds today.

Needless to say, an upbringing as described above was to influence how I felt about secondhand clothes and ensured that I associated them with a feeling of excitement rather than disdain.

Jumping forward thirty or forty years and village jumble sales are almost non-existent but charity shops are doing a roaring trade. Secondhand clothes rebranded as vintage clothing have become highly fashionable and sought after. Large bags are left outside charity shops, bulging with goodies to be revealed to the world within the next day or so, after they have been sorted out by the volunteers. Any vintage aficionado worth their salt will have to visit regularly to make sure that they do not miss out on the day's finds. This could be the very day that a 1960s vintage kaftan makes its appearance, swinging jauntily in the window, just waiting to be discovered by someone 'in the know'.

It's easy to understand why it makes us feel so good when we do 'get lucky' and find ourselves holding an actual original vintage piece. It's not just about the label, it's also about the quality. Clothes were often made to highly exacting standards in the thirties to the fifties, particularly. Methods such as silk linings and double stitching ensured that a garment would quite likely last well beyond its owner's lifetime. This, coupled with the rarity factor, makes a 'vintage find' something to be celebrated.

These days vintage women's clothing is almost a style trend in its own right, often favoured by celebrities who want to stand out from the crowd. It's a style, though, that's available to every one of us, we don't have to be rich to wear vintage.

We are fortunate to be able to conduct our search for vintage women's clothing online, as well as in shops in the high streets. We can rummage 'virtually' and still experience the thrill of coming across an item that we just have a feeling about - and then one day it happens - that slight increase in our heartbeat, our temperature rising a little, butterflies in our stomach. That wonderful feeling of excitement grows within us as we realise that we've found it! Now to just check the label...

Crafty Gift Ideas

Americans are mocked globally for their materialism, and for good reason. There are several gift-giving holidays embedded in the national culture. People are compelled to purchase things on a regular basis, even if those items are not necessary. The retail economy sees influxes of profits every Christmas, Valentine's Day, Mother's Day, Father's Day and graduation season. Birthdays, anniversaries and other special occasions also warrant gifts. While any boost to the current economy is a good thing, many people cannot afford to spend money on all of the gifts that their friends and family members are accustomed to receiving in the course of a year. There are many creative gift ideas that will allow these people to save money without disappointing their loved ones.

Handmade gifts are always appreciated. Simple items like scarves and hats cost mere dollars to make. Avid knitters can look up complex knitting patterns on the Internet and make scarves in different styles and colors. Recipients will not feel as if they are receiving the same items over and over if each scarf is distinct. Knit hats in varied styles are also fun gifts. Striped and plain beanies are popular right now among college-aged people. Anyone in his or her early twenties will be happy to receive a hat in a new color. Matching hat and scarf sets can be given to individuals as large gifts, or the individual items can be given on different holidays spanning one year. The items do not have to match perfectly to constitute a complementary set. For example, a green scarf can have black stripes while its corresponding hat is black with green stripes. Inversions of this nature are clever ways to comprise sets of accessories without overwhelming the wearer with one color or pattern.

Household items that are made by hand give any room a quirky, one-of-a-kind atmosphere. A traditional framed cross-stitch design can be hung over a door or in a prominent spot in a living room or hallway. These pieces usually feature floral motifs surrounding friendly or welcoming text. Something of this nature would be an especially appropriate gift for a young adult who has just moved into a new apartment. Alternately, the crafter can give her friends amusing framed works. Once she has learned the basics of cross-stitching, she can create any pattern she chooses. The zombie trend has extended to crafting; inexpensive books of zombie and other supernatural cross-stitching patterns can be purchased online, in craft stores and in regular book stores. An artfully stitched monster in a mature, formal frame would be a unique gift for a good friend with unconventional tastes. Talented painters can paint small portraits of their friends for their birthdays. Instead of placing them in frames, the artists should consider including miniature easels with the portraits. Permanently displaying a painting on an easel is a creative idea that makes the gift seem more expensive than it really was.

Re-gifting is appropriate under the right circumstances. Friends of the same age and economic status can trade items on holidays. Young women will gladly receive clothing that they once admired on their friends. Recommended books can be passed on to people who have not read them yet. When re-gifting, it is important to give items that are still fashionable and in good condition.